# Connect (type) safely

published on October 28th, 2017

One of the challenges when trying to use redux with TypeScript in a type safe way is to use the react-redux connect function in a type safe manner. To the best of my knowledge, it was previously not possible to write a type definition for TypeScript which would catch property-related type errors. The main culprit was TypeScripts unsound handeling of function argument types, which were bivariant when they should have been contravariant instead.

However, with TypeScript 2.6 a new strictness option is included called strictFunctionTypes. This option will ensure that function arguments are typed contravariantly, as they should be. It turns out that this is really all that is needed to make the existing type definition of the connect function type safe.

## What we want

The redux connect function takes a plain react component which only depends on its properties and connects it to a redux store, making it a container which can depend on and modify the application state in the redux store.

To do this, connect takes two functions, mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps. As the name suggests, mapStateToProps uses the current application state to produce properties and the mapDispatchToProps function uses the dispatch function to produce properties for the component to be connnected. Generally, the first will produce properties for the component to read and the second will produce callbacks for the component to modify the application state. The merged return values from mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps will be passed to the component to be connected. Thus, the type definition of the connect function should ensure that the merged return values are a superset of the properties that the component passed to the connect function expects.

## The problem with bivariant function types

Up to TypeScript 2.5, function arguments would always be typed bivariantely, which would lead to the following problem with the connect function:

interface OldProps {
oldIndex: number;
}

const OldComp: React.SFC<OldProps> = props => {
return div(undefined, props.oldIndex.toString());
};

interface NewProps {
newIndex: number;
}

interface State {}

interface Dispatch {}

interface PropsFromState {}

interface PropsFromDispatch {}

function mapStateToProps(s: State, np: NewProps): PropsFromState {
return {};
}

function mapDispatchToProps(d: Dispatch, np: NewProps): PropsFromDispatch {
return {};
}

// No type error in TypeScript <= 2.5 - but using NewComp leads to a
// runtime error as oldIndex is undefined
const NewComp = connect(mapStateToProps, mapDispatchToProps)(OldComp);


The problem here is that PropsFromState & PropsFromDispatch = {} & {} = {} is clearly not a superset of OldProps = { oldIndex: number; }, but the type checker (up to 2.5) does not complain about this as it is happy if either (PropsFromState & PropsFromDispatch) extends OldProps or OldProps extends (PropsFromState & PropsFromDispatch). This is just the unsoundness which is introduced by typing function arguments bivariantly.

## strictFunctionTypes to the rescue

With the strictFunctionTypes option enabled, TypeScript 2.6 now types function arguments contravariantly. In case of the connect function this means that it insists that (PropsFromState & PropsFromDispatch) extends OldProps must hold, the other way around is no longer enough. This fixes the problem pointed out above and makes the type definition of the connect function type safe.