Types and Tailcalls

Why Lisp? A Clojure Newbie Perspective

published on October 12th, 2011

Should I learn Lisp? When I asked myself this question I found many good articles that explained why Lisp is different and what is different about it. Why these differences are worthwhile was a little harder to understand and I generally didn't find a very good explanation what the big advantage of Lisp is. I am a little surprised by this. After all, if homoiconicity and macros are the thing that really sets Lisp apart and puts it at the far end of the power continuum of programming languages, wouldn't you expect the web to be full of descriptions of the actual benefits of these features? I would, but didn't find much. For example, Eric Raymond How To Become A Hacker "LISP is worth learning for a different reason — the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it. That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot." That sounds nice, but a profound enlightenment experience is a little abstract and I am not sure it's enough to convince everyone to learn Lisp. Paul Graham, who probably sold me on learning Lisp, writes "But I think I can give a kind of argument that might be convincing. The source code of the Viaweb editor was probably about 20-25% macros. Macros are harder to write than ordinary Lisp functions, and it's considered to be bad style to use them when they're not necessary. So every macro in that code is there because it has to be. What that means is that at least 20-25% of the code in this program is doing things that you can't easily do in any other language. However skeptical the Blub programmer might be about my claims for the mysterious powers of Lisp, this ought to make him curious. We weren't writing this code for our own amusement. We were a tiny startup, programming as hard as we could in order to put technical barriers between us and our competitors." Well, you might find this convincing, or you might not. I found it intriguing that Lisp has something that no other language has, or ever could have. But it still says terribly little about what benefits you have from using Lisp. Only know Blub? Sorry, can't explain.

I did not find these accounts entirely convincing but I was intrigued. If these very smart people are advertising Lisp, then clearly there must be something to it. Yet, I have always wondered how I myself would explain what it was that made Lisp special and why it would be a good use of one's time to learn it? Simply saying "it's powerful but you won't understand until you try it yourself" was unsatisfactory. Of course, you only ever really understand something yourself when you experience it first hand, but there had to be some tangible benefits that could be understood without first learning the language. Since I have learned Clojure and have witnessed how the ecosystem around it grows, I think I understand a little better. Let me try to explain why I think macros make Lisps incredibly powerful and why this power increases with wider adoption.

The original Lisp was incredibly insightful. Paul Graham lists nine original ideas that set Lisp apart when it appeared. Most of these ideas have since been adopted by other languages, which make it all the more clear how good these features were and how unbelievably ahead of its time Lisp once was. Most have been copied, except for one: Macros. Macros are what still sets Lisps apart. Marcos mean that you can manipulate the language at compile time. The reason Lisp-type macros haven't found their way in to other languages is that to have powerful macros you need to have a language that can easily be manipulated by the language. The way to achieve this to write the language in its own data structures, to make it homoiconic. This is the characterizing feature of Lisps and a language implementing it would be considered a Lisp.

But what good are macros? With all the benefits that macros provide I have not seen an account that lets me understand their benefits without understanding them first. As Paul Graham writes that if you only understand Blub then you cannot really understand the power of Macros. This post attempts to explain the power of Lisps macros and its homoiconic nature via XML. This is a nice idea, still for me it didn't really click.

Macros, plain and simple, give you the possibility to modify the source code before compilation. I read that the first thing you would have to understand is that Lisp macros are nothing like macros in other languages. Of course they are different, but this mislead me for a long time thinking that macros in Lisp served an alltogether different purpose than macros in, say C++. That's wrong, they do the same thing. The difference between C++ macros and Lisp macros is that Lisp macros are macros done right. They avoid all these nasty problems that come with C++ macros and that make people advise you to never use them.

Ok, you say. That's it? C++ macros done right? Ok, great, don't have to learn Lisp if that's all there is to it. Wait. It might not seem like much but macros done right yield extreme power. In fact macros yield a lot of power in C++, too. Not the same power, mind you, but still considerable. They allow you, for example, to introduce a FOR_EACH loop in C++. Only that they are so complicated that we can only let experts, those that are capable of writing Boost-strenghs libraries, handle them. With lisp macros everyone can write the equivalent all the time.

Well, you might say, my favorite language already has _for_each_. Just get a languae that was designed right, then you won't need macros, won't have to learn Lisp, and can get on with your life. The point is that for_each is not the point. If there was indeed a language that already did all things perfectly, we would indeed not need macros. But our needs and demands of a language evolve. Today it might be _for_each_, tomorrow we might want to use pattern matching and next month we might want to have gradual typing or a special built-in language to write SQL queries. The power of Lisp is that it gives you the means to do this. You can write your favorite language extension as a library. And you can get others favorite language extensions as a library.

Why does this matter? For one this allows a language to evolve extremely quickly, because not one person or a comittee has to do and decide everything. Somebody might say "I like X, but it doesn't have pattern matching and I really want pattern matching." If X is a Lisp then they can just write an awesome pattern matching library. Or they might say "I want to type some parts of X to get the benefits of compile-time type checking" and if X is a Lisp then they can do that. An yet somebody else might want a sepcial built in way to write SQL queries, and they can do that. So with Lisp macros people can do all these things and the don't have to petition the language designer. And other people can just use these solutions, improve upon them or come up with better ones.

But there is something else. Language designers must be unbelievably smart, I am in awe of them. But even these unbelievably smart people cannot possibly forsee every use of their language or every problem people will encounter. Eventually, it will turn out that some of their design decisions were not perfect and it would make sense to change them. What will happen then? Sometimes they will bring togehter more smart people, form a comittee and decide what direction to take. Sometimes they might make that decision by themselves or with a few people they know and trust. Either way, if the language has seen any kind of adoption, the following process of adopting the new version of the language is painful and slow. This because if a language introduces backward-incompatible changes a project will have to comply with them fully or it can't work with the new version. It's impossible to have some part of a project work with the new version and some part with the old version. What's more the process of deciding on new features is painful and slow because everyone knows how hard these changes are and that they can therefore not be made lightly. This is a trerrible climate for innovation. If you can keep core of a language as small as possible, this doesn't need to happen. The less there is to design the fewer design decisions you can get wrong. And if the rest of the language is provided as libraries then changing something there is not as painful. Projects can adopt step by step and you can effectively keep both versions of the language around. In fact you can have many versions of the language around and let peole sort out which one works well. Making language extensions and changes is cheap. This is a climate that is great for innovation and means the language can keep evolving.

So why Lisp, or in my case Clojure? I have found that learning the language is difficult at first, as you have to wrap your head around a few new concepts and get over all these parentheses. But it is also incredibly rewarding to work with a language that gives you so much power. Introducing your own syntactic sugar is nice, it is awesome to see how fast the language can evolve and to have a language that gives you so much power that you could give it your own gradual type system is just incredible.


Lisp is different because it has a powerful macro system. Macros mean that everyone can extend the language as a library. This means the language can evolve extremely fast and can keep doing so in the future. Compare this to the new C++ Standard (hey, only took 8 years or the transition from Python 2 to 3.

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